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DEFENCE IN DEPTH
Defence in depth: sources

SOURCE SCENARIOS

 

A range of scenarios were considered to calculate the D values.

A person placing unshielded source in his/her pocket

A person in the vicinity of an unshielded source for days or weeks

A person exposed to airborne radioactive material because of  fire or explosion

A person inadvertently ingesting radioactive material (from a leaking source or due to the contamination of the public water supply)

For each scenario,the quantity of radioactive material needed to give severe deterministic effects was calculated and the most limiting value was taken.

References:

  • Dangerous quantities of radioactive material (D values), EPR-D-VALUES 2006
  • Categorization of radioactive sources, IAEA-TECDOC-1344
  • Categorization of Radioactive Sources, No. RS-G-1.9 Safety Guide

Appendix IV

RADIOACTIVE SOURCE CATEGORIZATION BASED ON COMMON PRACTICE
Information taken from the IAEA’s Categorization of Radioactive Sources [1].

TABLE 23. CATEGORIZATION OF COMMON PRACTICES

Category

Categorization of common practices

Typical isotopes

1

Radioisotope thermoelectric
generators (RTGs)
Irradiators
Teletherapy
Fixed, multi-beam teletherapy
(gamma knife)

Sr-90, Pu-238

Co-60, Cs-137
Co-60, Cs-137
Co-60

2

Industrial gamma radiography

High/medium dose rate brachytherapy

Co-60, Se-75, Ir-192,Yb-169,
Tm-170
Co-60, Cs-137, Ir-192

3

Fixed industrial gauges:
- Level gauges
- Dredger gauges
- Conveyor gauges containing high
activity radioactive sources
- Spinning pipe gauges
- Well logging gauges

Co-60, Cs-137
Co-60, Cs-137
Cs-137, Cf-252

Cs-137
Am-241/Be, Cs-137, Cf-252

4

Low dose rate brachytherapy
(except eye plaques and permanent
implant sources)
Thickness/fill-Level gauges

Portable gauges
(e.g. moisture/density gauges)
Bone densitometers
Static eliminators

I-125, Cs-137, Ir-192, Au-198,
Ra-226, Cf-252

Kr-85, Sr-90, Cs-137, Am-241,
Pm-147, Cm-244
Cs-137, Ra-226, Am-241/Be
Cf-252
Cd-109, I-125, Gd-153, Am-241
Po-210, Am-241

5

Low dose rate brachytherapy eye
plaques and permanent implant
sources
X ray fluorescence devices
Electron capture devices
Mossbauer spectrometry
Positron emission tomography (PET)
check sources

Sr-90, Ru/Rh-106, Pd-103

Fe-55, Cd-109, Co-57
Ni-63, H-3
Co-57
Ge-68